|Degree Code:||H302||Degree Name:||B.SC. HUMAN ANATOMY|
|Degree Description:||Click to View|
Human Anatomy is a crucial feature of the study of man. It is a central science that is descriptive, numerate and whenever possible, experimental. Human anatomy is a broad subject comprising of topographic, microscopic, imaging, comparative, developmental, evolutionary, molecular and clinical components.
Teaching and research in anatomy focuses on all these. Also includes physical, anthropology, paleontology, genetic engineering, molecular biology, cloning, congenital malformations and neurosciences. Knowledge valuable in understanding disease patterns, congenital anomalies, their diagnosis, management and application has been increasingly demanding greater in-depth teaching and research in all divisions mentioned. There is therefore need for teachers and researchers in Human Anatomy, and those they train for medical practice and Biochemical Research, to attain deeper understanding of the subject.
Worldwide, there is a huge shortage of anatomists, especially for teaching topographic anatomy. The intercalated B.Sc. Anatomy is an in-house program offered to distinguished medical/dental students for training potential teachers of Human anatomy by deepening their insight into the subject and exposing them to research at an early stage. Since introduction of the program in the early 70s, there have been substantial changes in approach to human anatomy teaching and research. This revised version of the syllabus addresses these changes.
|Entry Requirements||View Details|
The common regulations for the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery and Bachelor of Dental Surgery apply.
The following shall be eligible for admission:
|Credit Transfers & Exemptions||View Details|
There are no course exemptions.
|Course Structure||View Details|
|Award of Degree||View Details|
Candidates who pass both taught courses and dissertation examinations shall be awarded the degree of Bachelor of Science (Hons) in Human Anatomy (B.Sc. (Hons) – Human Anatomy), of the University of Nairobi.
|Examinations Regulations||View Details|
Examination of coursework
Examination of Dissertation
Overall Assessment and grading
Human Anatomy is a crucial feature of the study of man. It is a central science that is descriptive, numerate and whenever possible, experimental. Human anatomy is a broad subject comprising topographic, microscopic, imaging, comparative, developmental, evolutionary, molecular and clinical components.
Teaching and research in anatomy focuses on all these, and also includes physical, anthropology, paleontology, genetic engineering, molecular biology, cloning, congenital malformations and neurosciences. Knowledge valuable in understanding disease patterns their diagnosis, management and application to prevent and correct congenital anomalies has been increasingly demanding greater in-depth teaching and research in all divisions. There is therefore need for teachers and researchers in Human Anatomy, and those they train for medical practice and Biochemical Research, to attain deeper understanding of the subject. Worldwide, there is a shortage of anatomists, especially for topographic anatomy.
The intercalated B.Sc. Anatomy is an in-house program offered to distinguished medical/dental students for training potential teachers of Human anatomy by deepening their insight into the subject and exposing them to research at an early stage. Since introduction of the program in the early 70s, there have been substantial changes in approach to human anatomy teaching and research. This revised version of the syllabus addresses these changes.
The objectives of the course are therefore to:
|Award of Degree||View Details|
|Level : 3|
|Semester: Non Specified|
|Course Code||Course Name||Course Hours|
|HHA 304||Developmental Anatomy And Genetics||120||View Description|
Developmental Anatomy And Genetics Description
HHA 304: DEVELOPMENTAL ANATOMY AND GENETICS
Introduction: History scope and significance.
Developmental periods: Prenatal and postnatal. Main features. Determinants and regulation.
Gametogenesis: Phases, events, determinants, timing, regulation and disorders of oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Ovarian and seminiferous tubule cycles.
Fertilization and early development: Phases, events, regulation and outcomes. In vitro fertilization.
Implantation and embryogenesis: Process of normal and abnormal implantation. Embryomaternal interaction. Regulation of implantation. Main features, events, regulation. Disorders of embryogenesis. Embryonic layer. Interactions and derivatives. Process, regulation, outcome and disorders of gastrulation.
Teratology: Causes and mechanism of birth defects.
Histogenesis: Sources, processes, events, defects of development of muscle, nervous, epithelial and supporting tissues. Regulation of development. Epithelial mesenchymal interactions and transition.
Organogenesis: Sources, histogenesis and morphogenesis of all body organs. Development of body systems.
Aging and degeneration: Histological and cellular changes that occur in body tissues and organs with advancing age. Determining factors.
Genetics: Definition, scope and significance. Patterns of inheritance. Mechanisms of sex determination. Genes and gene expression. Mutations and genetic disorders. Molecular evolution. The structure and functions of DNA and RNA. Structure of genes and coding for protein synthesis. Molecular biology in genetic studies and genetic diseases. Molecular biology in histogenesis and embryogenesis. Karyotyping and chromosomal abnormalities. Inheritance and role of genetics in embryogenesis.
|HHA 301||Topographic Anatomy||180||View Description|
Topographic Anatomy Description
Introduction: History, legislation and regulation of study of human anatomy.
Limbs:Dermatomes and angiosomes, fascial compartments, muscle attachments, actions and neurovascular pedicles. Bone geometry, architecture, muscle attachments and blood flow patterns. Joint structure, classification, stability, neurovascular supply, movements and disorders.Nerve plexus formation, branching and distribution. Artery course, landmarks and anastomoses.Boundaries, contents and applied anatomy of intermuscular spaces.
Head:Skull bones, sutures and fontanelles. Growth and aging changes of the skull bones. Foramina and their contents. Muscle attachments and neurovascular relations. Weak points. Adaptive features of skull bones. Organs of special sensation. Cranial nerves exit/entry, relations, course and distribution. Neurovascular anatomy and muscles of scalp and face.
Neck:Skin, fascia, triangles, vessels, nerves muscles and viscera.
Thorax:Adaptive features of components of the wall. Neurovascular structures. Landmarks, parts and neurovascular supply of the pleura. Thoracic inlet and outlet. Anatomical features of individual viscera.
Abdomen: Components and neurovascular supply of the wall. Peritoneum and related spaces. Topography of individual organs. Blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves.
Pelvis and perineum:Components, neurovascular supply of wall. Pelvic peritoneum. Topographic features of organs, spaces and landmarks. Blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves.
|HHA 302||Neuroanatomy||120||View Description|
Cranial cavity: Compartments and contents.
Meninges: Layers, sublayers and neurovascular supply. Extensions.
Cerebrum: Lobes, gyri and sulci. Connecting fibres. Functional areas. Blood supply and blood brain barrier.
Basal ganglia: Components, connections, functions and disorders.
Connecting fibres: Evolution and significance of commissural, association and projection fibres. Parts and composition of corona radiata and internal capsule.
Ventricular system: Topography of ventricles and cisterns. Cerebrospinal fluid. Communication and reabsorption.
Diencephalon: Evolution, topography, connections and functions of the thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus and metathalamus.
Brain stem: Evolution, topography, nuclei and tracts of the mid brain, pons and medulla. Vascular syndromes and brain death.
Cerebellum: Evolution, topography, nuclei, connections, functions and disorders.
Tractology: Evolution, functional organization, localization, connections of ascending and descending tracts of the spinal cord.
Reticular formation: Components, connections and functions.
Spinal cord: Evolution, topography, protection, blood supply, tracts, enlargements and extents.
Peripheral nervous system: Origins, course, relations, distribution and disorders of cranial and spinal nerves.
Autonomic nervous system: Components, topographic and functional organization. Regulation and disorders.
|HHA 303||Microscopic Anatomy And Molecular Biology||120||View Description|
Microscopic Anatomy And Molecular Biology Description
MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Cell structure: Structural and functional organization of the cell membranes and subcellular organelles, cytoskeleton and nucleus.
Cell activities: Synthesis, secretion, exocytosis, endocytosis. Cell motility and dynamisim. Intracellular, transcellular and intercellular transport. Organelle production and renewal. Regulation of cell function. Ultrastructural features of cells of protein, steroid synthesizing, ion transport, phagocytosis.
Cell cycle: Phases and regulation. Apoptosis, necrosis.
Histology: Microscopic features, structural and functional organization of the nervous, epithelial, muscular and skeletal tissues. Adaptations to function.
Organology: Microscopic features and organization of all organs of the human body. Cells, tissue types and respective functions. Adaptations to function. Regional features within systems.
Molecular biology: Definition, scope and significance. Structure, types properties, replication, retrievalof DNA and RNA in vivo. DNA polymerases, and replication primers. Molecular markers – Alloenzymes; RFLPs, molecular alleles. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), microsatellites (STRs). DNA technology. cDNA and genomic libraries and screening. Polymerase Chain Reaction and sequencing. Transgenic organisms. Introduction to proteomies. Bioinformatics, internet tools as a resource, sequence databases and online tools. Link to genome projects, software environment for DNA sequence analysis. Sequence alignment. Phylogenetic inference. Sequence data bases. Nuclear probes.
|HHA 305||Principles Of Scientific Communication, Research Methods And Biostatistics||90||View Description|
Principles Of Scientific Communication, Research Methods And Biostatistics Description
RESEARCH TECHNIQUES AND SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION
Tissue preparation: Processing of specimens for light and electron microscopic study. Principles and practice of light and electron microscopy. Principles of immunohistochemical techniques.
Morphometry and stereology: Definition, language and symbolism. Mathematical basis. Fundamentals of stereology. Delesse principle. Random, systematic and multiple stage sampling. Point counting method.
Biostatistics: Sources and organization of data. Information retrieval. Measures of central tendency and dispersion. Normal distribution and standard deviation. Tests of significance. Analysis of variance, correlation and regression analysis.
Information management: Computer use, use of library and search of information. Basic computer packages - word processing, excel spread sheet, power point, internet, statistical packages.
Scientific communication: Formulation of research proposal, writing scientific papers, dissertations and thesis, oral and poster presentation. Analysis and critiquing scientific literature.
|HHA 306||Primate Biology And Adaptability||90||View Description|
Primate Biology And Adaptability Description
PRIMATE BIOLOGY, ADAPTABILITY AND EVOLUTION.
Introduction: Definition of primates and their place in mammalian taxonomy. Importance of primate biology in human anatomy.
Life and environment of primates: Primate taxonomy. Primate ecology and population dynamics. Primate and zoonoses.
Primate behaviour and adaptability: Adaptations for posture, position, feeding and mating behaviour. Social organization. Aboreality and brachiation. Prehensile hands, feet and tail. Comparative and functional anatomy.
Primate research: Use of primates in research for human diseases. Primates in captivity. Genetics of primates.
Human evolution: Fossil evidence. Features of hominids and hominoids. Evolution of bipedalism and bipedal striding. Tool use and language.
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