Topographic anatomy
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Anatomical landmarks and features of the pelvic bones, femur, tibia, fibula, foot bones and their radiographs. Gluteal region - muscles, nerves, vessels and structures passing through sciatic foramina. Front of thigh - boundaries and contents of femoral triangle, femoral vessels, femoral nerve, femoral canal and femoral hernia, adductor group of muscles, adductor canal, obturator nerve and vessels. Back of the thigh - hamstring muscles, sciatic nerve, boundaries and contents of the popliteal fossa. Compartments of the leg and their contents. Cutaneous innervation of the lower limb. Plantar foot: arches of the foot, layers of the sole of the foot, plantar nerves and vessels. Functional anatomy of hip, knee, tibiofibular, ankle, subtalar joints and small joints of the foot. Mechanisms of walking in normal and abnormal gait. Arterial anastomoses in the various parts of the lower limb. Venous access by “cut-down” of saphenous vein and femoral vein, common locations and possible causes of deep venous thromboses. Common causes and consequences of nerve injuries of the lower limb.

Features of the vertebrae, their regional modification, articulations and movements. Normal and abnormal spinal curvatures. Vertebral foramen, vertebral canal, intervertebral foramina and structures passing through them. Organization of the posterior and anterior vertebral muscle groups. Functional considerations of the back; maintenance of center of gravity, standing erect and holding weights, lifting weights and bending. Anatomical basis of low back pain.

Anatomical landmarks of the upper limb and features of the shoulder bones, humerus, radius, ulna, and hand wrist bones and their radiographs. Pectoral region and anatomy of the breast. Boundaries and contents of the axilla. Organization and distribution of the brachial plexus and effect of its injury at various levels. Compartments of arm and their contents. Boundaries and contents of the cubital fossa. Forearm: musculature, innervation, blood supply, flexor and extensor retinacula and the carpal tunnel. Cutaneous innervation of the upper limb. Hand: fascial compartments and spaces, arterial blood supply, venous return and innervation. Functional anatomy of joints of the upper limb: sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, glenohumeral, radioulnar, elbow, wrist, carpometacarpal, metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. Functions of the upper extremity: tactile sensibility and prehension. Arterial anastomoses around the scapula, elbow and in    the hand. Common nerve injuries in the upper limb and their manifestations.

Features, landmarks, individual bones and foramina of the         skull. Composition, innervation and vasculature of the scalp. Characteristics of the muscles, nerves and vessels of the face. Features, boundaries and contents of the anterior, middle and posterior cranial fossae. Anatomy of the cranial meninges, dural venous sinuses and the pituitary gland. Boundaries and contents of the orbit. Organization of the external, middle and internal ear, and the auditory tube. Boundaries and contents of the parotid and submandibular regions. Organization and contents of temporal and infratemporal fossae. Functional anatomy of the temporomandibular joint. Boundaries and contents of the pterygopalatine fossa. Boundaries and contents of the posterior and anterior            cervical triangles, and deep fascia of the neck. Position, relations, blood supply and clinical considerations of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Organization of structures of the oral cavity and oropharyngeal isthmus. Organization of the nose and features of the nasal cavity. Organization, musculature, nerve and blood supply of the    pharynx and larynx. Mechanisms of swallowing and phonation. Organization of the cervical parts of the oesophagus and trachea. Carotid, subclavian arteries and jugular veins. Lymphatic drainage of the head and neck.

Breathing is so automatic and mechanical for most of us that we often fail to consider the complexities of respiration. The human respiratory system is made of an intricate network of hundreds of millions of tiny alveoli which play a key role in gas exchange. Although vulnerable to various infections and disorders, the respiratory system by and large continues to function in order to sustain us. This course explores each component 

Features of ribs, sternum and thoracic vertebrae. Organization of the intercostal space, intercostal muscles, nerves, vessels, and mechanisms of respiration. Attachments, major and minor foramina, nerve and blood supply of the thoracic diaphragm. Parts, recesses, cavity, surface markings, nerves and vessels of the parietal and visceral pleurae. Features, root, relations, surface markings, impressions of the right and left lungs. Organization of the thoracic portion of the trachea, and the bronchial tree. Vasculature of the lungs: pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins and the bronchial vessels. Organization, boundaries and contents of the various parts of the mediastinum.

The human cardiovascular system is a finely tuned feat of engineering and the consequences of neglecting the variant anatomy or damaging that fragile system can be drastic. 

Organization, boundaries and contents of the various parts of the mediastinum. Structure and features of pericardium and pericardial sinuses. Surface Anatomy of the borders of the heart and its valves. External features of the surfaces of the heart. Characteristics and variations of the coronary circulation. Features of the cardiac chambers and valves. Cardiac skeleton and arrangement of the cardiac muscle fibres. Components of the conducting system of the heart. Cardiac innervation and plexuses, afferent sensations from the heart and referred cardiac pain. Origin, course, distribution and applied anatomy of the phrenic nerves. Vagus nerves in the thorax, and thoracic sympathetic trunks. Surface markings, relations and branches of the ascending aorta, aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta. Veins of the thorax including the vena cavae and brachiocephalic veins. Course, relations and area of drainage of the thoracic duct and the right lymphatic duct. Anatomy of the thoracic esophagus and the thymus gland.

Surface landmarks of the abdomen and abdominal regions. Anterior abdominal wall and organization of its muscles, and the rectus sheath. Inguinal canal and inguinal hernia. Blood supply, lymphatic drainage and innervation of the anterior abdominal wall. Organization of the parietal and visceral layers of peritoneum and the peritoneal recesses, fossae, sacs and folds. Position, relations, surface markings, nerve supply, blood supply, lymphatic drainage, peritoneal coverings and applied anatomy of organs of the gastrointestinal tract. Arterial supply of the gastrointestinal tract: celiac trunk, superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. Venous return from GIT tract, and the hepatic portal circulation, including portosystemic anastomosis. Surface markings, features, relations, blood supply and lymphatic drainage of the kidneys, ureters and suprarenal       glands. Organization and structures of the posterior abdominal wall. Lymphatic drainage of the abdominal walls and organs.

Definition, boundaries and divisions of the perineum. Organization of the anal canal and ischioanal fossa.  Male and female external genitalia and the urogenital triangle. Pelvic walls and features of the bony pelvis in male and female. Joints and ligaments of the pelvis, muscles of the pelvis        and the pelvic diaphragm. Pelvic fascia and organization of pelvic peritoneum in male and female. Sacral plexus and the pelvic autonomic plexuses. Iliac vessels and their distribution. Lymphatic drainage of pelvic walls and organs. Position, relations, blood supply, innervation, lymphatics and applied anatomy of pelvic viscera. Anatomical organization of male genital organs (testes, vasa deferentia, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts,           prostate and male urethra). Anatomical organization of the parts female genital system.