The intercalated Human Anatomy degree program is designed for medical and dental students wishing to get in depth scientific training in an area of interest and develop practical research and analytical skills within that discipline by taking a year out of their medical or dental studies to work towards a Bachelor of Science degree in a specific subject.
Anatomy encompasses all levels of structural organization: topographical, neuroanatomical, histological, cellular and developmental, both embryonic and phylogenetic; and comparative aspects at higher levels. A sound understanding of Human Anatomy is not only essential for the understanding and innovative advancement in all surgical disciplines but in almost all medical specialties especially but not limited to, neurology, interventional cardiology, pathology and radiology.
Despite its importance, there are worldwide reports of a decline in dedicated basic and applied anatomists.
The intercalated course in Human Anatomy provides the opportunity for extensive study of the subject in more detail and depth than a medical degree covers, engaging in a piece of original research thus enhancing research-related transferable skills beneficial in both academic and clinical careers. This selected subset of medical students is also introduced to some components of educational principles aimed at increasing the pool of well-trained anatomists with research, leadership and analytical competencies.
The overall goal of the programme is to equip the learner with in-depth knowledge of applied anatomical sciences and competencies necessary for basics of biomedical research that will enable participation in future professional development.
This is a premier course designed to enable a few MBChB/BDS students who have completed and passed all the courses of the first and second year and have particularly distinguished themselves in those courses to acquaint themselves with more detailed Human Physiology and Anatomy. This program acquaints the selected students with modern research methods and to enable them to develop skills in some of these research methods, especially building upon their work of the first and second year courses. These students obtain the Degree of Bachelor of Science as an indication of their basic potential for specializing later within the fields of Medicine, Physiology and related Biological Sciences.
Mode of delivery
The mode of delivery of the intercalated BSc Anatomy Programme will be through
Face to face sessions, and e-learning methods
The face to face sessions will involve lectures, seminars, tutorials, practical classes and journal clubs
The e-learning methods will involve the use of multimedia as follows:
Students will engage in self-study using self-instructional study materials
Students will be directed on conducting practical independently in the laboratories, museums and in the fields
- Candidates will be selected after the end of the second year of the MBChB. course.
- The BSc. (anatomy) course will normally be available between the second and third year of the MBChB. degree course.
- The course which will be on full time basis extending over three terms will consist of discussion classes, tutorials, practical and filled work with special reference to the development of skills related to conducting original investigations, the analysis of data and the preparation of papers containing original observations. Students will \ be required to present at least two comprehensive review papers per term, the nature of the paper and the precise number to be determined by the department of the Human Anatomy in consultation with the external examiner. Students will be required to undertake extensive guided reading.
Duration and Structure of the Programme
The program shall run over a minimum of two semesters equivalent to one academic year.
The program shall be by coursework and a research project.
Assessment shall be based on the final examination and continuous assessment based on written assignments, seminar presentations, continuous assessment and such other tests given during the course. The final examination in each course shall count for 70% and continuous assessments for 30% of the total marks.
Detailed knowledge of Anatomy as the basic science that underpins modern medicine.
Skills of critical evaluation in relation to relevant biomedical literature and data.
Ability to communicate scientific information in a variety of formats.
Research skills enabling design, execution interpretation and reporting of experiments in biomedical sciences.
This course ensures the student has a deeper knowledge of gross anatomy of the entire human body, through regional dissections, with emphasis on clinical applications of anatomical structure and function. The course further provides students with demonstrating and teaching techniques in clinical anatomy.
Expected Learning Objectives
- To comprehensively review of gross anatomy accomplished through dissection and discussion of the detailed regional anatomy of the human body.
- To demonstrate comprehensive application of anatomical knowledge to clinical and research situations.
- To evaluate different methods of study of topographic human anatomy, adopting the most appropriate for particular analyses.
- To encourage development of intellectual, scientific, technical and personal skills for research and independent study of topographic anatomy.
Expected Learning Outcomes
At the end of this course, the student should be able to:
- Demonstrate competence in the dissection and integrating observations on different anatomical specimens, thus exhibiting greater comprehension of the complexity of the human body.
- Discuss the application of anatomical knowledge to relevant clinical and applied situations.
- Describe, evaluate and demonstrate, appropriate anatomical techniques for the study of human anatomy.
- Evaluate critically, current research and advanced scholarship in the anatomical variations.
- Provide detailed verbal and written descriptions of structures and systems studied, with correct use of anatomical nomenclature and suggestions for clinical application
Introduction to gross anatomy: History, legislation and regulation of study of human anatomy.
Limbs: Dermatomes and angiosomes, fascial compartments, muscle attachments, actions and neurovascular pedicles. Bone geometry, architecture, muscle attachments and blood flow patterns. Joints: structure, classification, stability, neurovascular supply, movements and disorders. Nerves plexuses: formation, branching and distribution. Arterial and Venous courses, landmarks and anastomoses. Boundaries, contents and applied aspects of anatomical spaces.
Thorax: Adaptive features of components of the wall. Neurovascular structures. Landmarks, parts and neurovascular supply of the pleura. Thoracic inlet and outlet. Anatomical features of individual viscera.
Abdomen: Components and neurovascular supply of the wall. Peritoneum and related spaces. Topography of individual organs. Blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves.
Pelvis and perineum: Components, neurovascular supply of wall. Pelvic peritoneum. Topographic features of organs, spaces and landmarks. Blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves.
The course shall be delivered through lectures, seminars, tutorials, journal clubs and assignments on Applied/clinical Anatomy and Dissection Practical
Instructional Materials and Equipment
Lecture room, audiovisual equipment, light and electron microscopes
- Continuous assessment – 40%
- Final Exam – 60%
- Chummy S. S. (2011). Last’s anatomy. (12th Ed). Churchill Livingstone.
- Harold E. and Vishy M. (2010) Clinical anatomy, (12th Ed.) Wiley – Blackwell
- Keith L. M, Arthur F. D. and Anne M. R. Agur, (2013). Clinically Oriented Anatomy. (7th edition). Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Publishers.
- Lee J. S, (2004). Surgical anatomy. (1st Ed.) P.M.P Publishers,
- Richard S. S, (2007). Clinical anatomy by Regions. (8th Edition). Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Publishers.
- Romanes G. J, (1981). Cunningham's Textbook of Anatomy. (12th edition). Oxford medical publications.
- Susan S, (2015); Ed. Gray's Anatomy. The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. (41st edition). Elsevier publishers.
- Thorek Phillip (1985). Anatomy in surgery. (3rd Ed). Springer-verlag, New York,
- Anatomy journal of Africa
- Journal of Clinical Anatomy
- Journal of Anatomy
- International Journal of Morphology
- Annals of Anatomy
- All published articles, theses, and books on topographic anatomy by the department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi
The course defines the scope and depth in gross, radiological, applied or clinically relevant anatomy of the head and neck region. It also enables the student to appreciate the structural and functional organization of the components of the nervous system and their interconnections as the basis of common mechanisms and clinical presentations of various neuropathologies.
- The common regulations for the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery and Bachelor of Dental Surgery apply.
- The following shall be eligible for admission:
- Registered students for the course of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery or Bachelor of Dental Surgery, who have scored distinction grade in Human Anatomy and at least a credit passes in any two of the following; Biochemistry, physiology and/or oral biology and have passed their second year examinations for their core degree course.
- Students at equivalent levels from other schools of the University of Nairobi and other Universities, recognized by the University of Nairobi senate, who meet the above criteria, subject to an entry examination.
- In addition to the above admission requirements, the applicants are expected to complete their core courses especially M.B.Ch.B/BDS, thereafter, Provide proof of proficiency in use of English language.
- Teaching and instruction in Human Anatomy.
- Further training in related medical fields
- Anatomical and medical research
Fees and Funding
|Tuition Fees||Ksh. 50,000.00|
|Supervision Fee||Ksh. 15,000.00|
|Written Exam||Ksh. 5,000.00|
|Computer Fee||Ksh. 5,000.00|
|Activity Fee||Ksh. 2,000.00|
|Medical Fee||Ksh. 5,000.00|
|Caution Money||Ksh. 5000.00|
|Laboratory fees||Ksh. 60,000.00|
|Research fees||Ksh. 100,000.00|
|Total (Local students)||KShs. 251,500.00|
|International students||KShs. 314,375.00|
NOTE: The above fees is applicable to both local and international students.