DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN HUMAN ANATOMY

Overview

1. Introduction

The overall goal of the programme is to equip the grandaunts with knowledge, attitudes, skills and competencies that are necessary for a research scientist in specific thematic areas of human anatomy. The gradualness are expected to appraise scientific developments in the field of Human Anatomy for translational research, design research in specific thematic areas of anatomical sciences and translational research which address the science of health needs, practice dissemination of anatomical sciences to relevant audiences and demonstrate leadership in specific thematic areas of anatomical sciences and translational research.

2. Background

Human anatomy is a broad subject comprising topographic, microscopic, imaging, comparative, developmental and clinical components. Research in anatomy includes molecular biology, cloning, congenital malformations, neurosciences, physical anthropology, palaeontology, genetics and tissue engineering. Research in Human Anatomy has the potential to influence diagnosis, treatment and health outcomes.

3. Philosophy of the Program

This is a pinnacle educational qualification, which demonstrates that the graduate is a world-class researcher. Human Anatomy is the central science that is descriptive, numerate and whenever possible, experimental. There is an increasing demand for knowledge valuable in understanding disease patterns, their diagnosis, management and application to prevent and correct congenital anomalies from a basic science perspective. A graduate program that produces leaders in specific thematic areas of Human Anatomy and health services research that transitions scientific findings from the laboratory to the clinical setting to best practices in the community are needed. As a middle-income country, we are expected to find solutions to our health issues.

These solutions will be realized if there are pools of highly trained scientists. Therefore, the PhD will comprise an independent, supervised research project mutually agreed upon by a student, and supervisor. The PhD requires the development and implementation of a rigorous research plan, based on a comprehensive understanding of the relevant literature and the need for answers to questions posed in that literature or as the result of a new theory. Students may also undertake industry placements and other developmental activities.

4. The Rationale of the Programme

Human Anatomy forms the foundation of the study of human medicine, sports medicine, nursing, pharmacy, dentistry, physiotherapy and occupational therapy. Scientists holding the highest degree in Human Anatomy are required in Kenya and in the region. The field of Human Anatomy is highly dynamic with rapidly changing technologies and tools for research and teaching. A program to produce leaders in different thematic areas of Human Anatomy who combine clinical and translational sciences are required. It is in view of the above that this curriculum is proposed.

 

5. The Objectives of the Programme

The overall objectives of the programme is to equip the grandaunts with knowledge, attitudes, skills and competencies that are necessary for a research scientist in specific thematic areas of human anatomy.

6. Expected Learning Outcomes

By the end of this program, the learner will be able to:

  1. Appraise scientific developments in the field of Human Anatomy for translational research.
  2. Design research in specific thematic areas of anatomical sciences and translational research which address the science of health needs.
  3. Practice dissemination of anatomical sciences to relevant audiences.
  4. Demonstrate leadership in specific thematic areas of anatomical sciences and translational research.

 

7. MODE OF DELIVERY

The mode of delivery will be through face to face sessions, open learning, online modules, self-directed learning and bedside teaching and blended learning (simulated learning.

  1. Face To Face Mode

This will involve lectures, seminars, tutorials and conduct of relevant research projects. Students will have the opportunity for guest seminars from visiting experts, who will bring patient cases to share with them so that the student apply knowledge to a presented clinical setting. The experts may also rely on real clinical scenarios at the bedside. The students will also engage in supervised and mentored teaching experiences with medical students and graduate students.

  1. Self-Directed Learning

This will be a student-centric program where the students will be guided on the relevant areas to research and the results evaluated after a presentation with colleagues and faculty.

  1. Online Modules

The students will be expected to take advantage of the online modules developed for the various course units.

  1. Format

 This programme will be offered on a full-time basis and in the English language.

 

The Programme shall run over a minimum of three academic years and a maximum of five years for full time students.

The course has two parts. The first part covers the tuition component of the course. In the second part, students will cover the research (thesis) component of the course. 

 

Course Duration and Structure

The full-time programme shall be completed in a minimum of 3 years and a maximum of 6

years while the part-time programme will be completed in a minimum of 4 years and a

maximum of 8 years.

The programme shall be done by coursework and thesis.

A course unit shall be defined as sixty (60) contact hours.

The program shall consist of a total of 69 units of 60 hours each over 9 terms of 12 weeks

each.

The candidate shall be required to take 3 compulsory courses.

There are 3 optional thematic area courses from which the candidate will choose only one of

them.

The course shall be divided into two parts. Part 1 is the course work which consists of 4

courses. Part II is the research and thesis writing.

Candidates shall proceed to part II only after successful completion of part I courses and

passing all the exams.

There shall be a thesis topic agreed upon between the student and the supervisors.

Students shall prepare and submit a study proposal for ethical review before the end of part I.

Students will be expected to identify appropriate laboratories or research programmes locally

or abroad where they will undertake external rotation for a maximum of 3 months.

 

Deregistration

A candidate will be deregistered if s/he does not meet the requirements specified in the documents below:

Manual on code of conduct of the Medical ethics published by the Medical Practitioner’s and Dentist Board in Kenya

Public Officers Ethics Act, 2003 (revised in May 2009), part III, general Code of Conduct and Ethics (Chapter 6 of Kenya constitution)

Exceeds the prescribed maximum duration of the course without a valid reason.

Course Matrix

Learning Outcome

Course Codes

 

HHA 801

HHA 802

HHA 803

HHA 804

All the course content listed below are indicative of the areas of knowledge expected of students. They are, however, not exhaustive and are not to exclude other areas of relevant knowledge.

Core Courses

HHA 801: Cell and tissue biology (Microscopic Anatomy)

Course Purpose

The purpose of this course is to enable learners to apply advanced light and electron microscopic techniques for research purposes and use molecular techniques to understand abnormalities in cell functioning and current applications to medical research.

Expected learning outcomes

At the end of this course, the learner should be able to:

  1. Demonstrate sound knowledge of cell and tissue biology;
  2. Use molecular biology techniques in cell and tissue research;
  3. Prepare slides using different histologic techniques for purposes of teaching and research;
  4. Apply the knowledge of microscopic techniques to research.

Course Content

The course is a comprehensive study of human cell biology, basic tissues and organ systems (e.g., cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, integumentary and lymphoid). It includes but not limited to Cell Biology and Genetics: Cell and gene structure, cellular biology/dynamics as relates to health and disease. Molecular biology in genetic studies and genetic diseases. Molecular biology in histogenesis and embryogenesis.  Karyotyping and chromosomal abnormalities; Epithelium and Connective tissue: Epithelio-mesenchymal interaction and relevance in disease states, connective tissue cells and matrix, fibre characteristics, metabolism; Cartilage and bone: Structural organization  and relation to function;  cartilage repair and bone growth; Blood, Haemopoetic and lymphoid tissue: Bone marrow dynamics, mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue, spleen and thymus; Muscle (Propulsion tissue):  Functional anatomy, Ultrastructure and relation to disease states, metabolism, growth and regeneration; Nervous tissue:  Form and distribution of various nerve fibres,  neuromuscular junction, neuroglia and biology of synapses; Skin and appendages: structural morphology and relation to skin conditions, surgical would healing and the role of skin in plastic surgery; Oral cavity and associated structures: The structure of the tongue including taste buds. Structure and functions of the glands of the oral cavity. Dentition in man.   Structure and functions of parts of a tooth. The structure of the palate and pharynx; Respiratory system: Structural adaptations to functions; The Circulation System:  Structural adaptations/responses of the arterial wall to hypertension and injury. Structure of veins and capillaries and relation to an understanding of function. The microcirculation. Anatomy of the cardiovascular system in relation to cardiovascular surgery and cardiology; The Digestive system: Structural adaptations to function along the digestive tract. The anatomy of GI malignancy and inflammation. Neuroendocrine tumours; The urination system:  The nephron and structural adaptations. The nephron in disease states; The Male & Female reproductive systems: Gonadal barrier, structural morphology, cyclical anatomy; Endocrine System: Functional designs, functional anatomy, and the diffuse neuroendocrine system. Contemporary techniques of tissue processing for light and various types of electron microscopy to histochemistry and immunohistochemistry preparation of frozen sections. Detailed ultrastructural organization of cell organelles, and functional specialization of cells. Structural and molecular organization of tissues. Ultrastructural features of organs in the body.

Mode of delivery

The course shall be conducted through face to face lectures, practicals, seminars, tutorials, presentations and self-directed learning.

Instructional materials

Laptops, LCD projectors, articles from journals, books, relevant internet sites.

Course assessment

Continuous assessment = 100%

Core reading material

  1. Mescher AL. 2016. Junqueira's Basic Histology 14th Edition. ISBN-13: 978-0071842709, ISBN-10: 0071842705
  2. Bruce AlbertsAlexander JohnsonJulian LewisDavid MorganMartin Raff. 2015. Molecular Biology of the Cell 6th Edition. ISBN-13: 978-0815344322, ISBN-10: 0815344325
  3.  Leon Weiss. Cell and Tissue Biology: A Textbook of Histology 6 Sub Edition. ISBN-13: 978-0806721767, ISBN-10: 0806721766
  4. Michael H. RossWojciech Pawlina. 2011. Histology: A Text and Atlas, with Correlated Cell and Molecular Biology, 6th Edition 6th Edition. ISBN-13: 978-0781772006, ISBN-10: 0781772001
  5. S. AmelinckxDirk van DyckJ. van LanduytGustaaf van Tendeloo. Electron Microscopy: Principles and Fundamentals

HHA 802:  Gross Anatomy

Course purpose

To enable the learner to apply knowledge in advanced gross anatomy to current applications in medical research and/or clinical practice.

Expected learning outcomes

At the end of this course, the learner should be able to

  1. Demonstrate sound knowledge of gross anatomy.
  2. Demonstrate skills in a cadaveric dissection of a human body.
  3. Use the knowledge of gross anatomy in biomedical research and/or clinical practice.
  4. Demonstrate understanding of how functional segregation (specialization) and functional integration interact and can be studied with MRI techniques

Course content

Students will cover the history of anatomy and legislative regulation of anatomy practice. Five dissection techniques and preparation of material for dissection. Pitfalls and trade-offs of the anatomical position. Plastination and museum techniques. Topographic disposition of structures in various anatomical regions. Adaptations of body organs and parts. Surface and relational anatomy of body organs. Detailed anatomy of the cardiovascular system, nervous system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, urination system and reproductive system in health and disease.

The course is a descriptive anatomy of the following regions including anatomical spaces/compartments, boundaries, relations including neurovascular relations, landmarks, important clinical applications, surgical approaches, descriptions of bones/muscles/joints/organs and related functional anatomy, radiological and cross-sectional anatomy: Lower Limb and Upper Limb, Back, Head and Neck, Thorax, Abdomen, Pelvis and Perineum.

The study includes morphometry analysis of various bones with emphasis on evolutionarily and clinical important variations. Factors influencing remodelling of bones and vulnerability to fractures.  Age, gender, time and ethnic variations in features of bones. Bones as valuable landmarks in topographic and surgical anatomy. 

Contemporary methods in neuroscience research. Topography, vascular features and connections of various parts of the nervous system. Tractology and modulation of pathways. Control of cerebral blood flow, stroke syndromes neuronal degeneration. Structure, functions and disorders of Blood-brain barrier structure. The diagnostic test of brain functioning and brain imaging. Organization of special receptors and mechanism for transmission of special sensations; Organization of Cranial Nerves; Neuroplasticity and adult neurogenesis; Currents concepts in neuroregeneration; Anatomy of Stroke, Alzheimer's disease, autism and head injury.

Mode of delivery

The course shall be conducted through moderated discussions, practicals, seminars, tutorials, presentations and self-directed learning.

Instructional materials

Laptops, LCD projectors, articles from journals, books, relevant internet sites.

Course assessment

Continuous assessment = 100%

Core reading material

  1. Drake et al., Gray’s Anatomy for Students (2005).
  2. Morton et al., Gray’s Dissection Guide for Human Anatomy (2007) Atlas: Your choice (recommend Netter’s, or Thieme)
  3. Clinical Anatomy by Regions, 8th Edition, Richard S. Snell, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  4. Atlas of Human Anatomy, 5th Edition, Frank Netter, Elsevier
  5. Grant's Atlas of Anatomy, 12th Edition, Anne Agur and Arthur Dalley, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins,
  6. Atlas of Anatomy, Ann M. Gilroy, Brian R. MacPherson and Lawrence M. Ross, Thieme Medical
  7. https://www.visiblebody.com/manuals/atlas-lab-manuals-thank-you?submissionGuid=4ffd98f2-5a46-4ab6-82d3-10b86c4d8b79
  8. Clinical Neuroanatomy and Neuroscience. 6th Edition © 2012 by Saunders Elsevier ISBN: 978-0702037382.
  9. Netter’s Atlas of Neuroscience, 2nd Edition. David Felten and Anil Shetty. © 2010 by Saunders Elsevier ISBN: 9781416054184.
  10. An excellent printed brain atlas: The Human Brain in Photographs and Diagrams, 4th Edition, John Nolte © 2013 by Saunders Elsevier. ISBN: 9781455709618
  11. A condensed medical neuro study guide: High Yield Neuroanatomy, 4th Edition, James Fix © 2008 Wolters Kluwer – Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN: 9780781779463 
  12. Brain Facts © 2008 Society for Neuroscience, free download at http://www.brainfacts.org/about-neuroscience/brain-facts-book/
  13. Neuroscience Online, an electronic textbook for the neurosciences http://neuroscience.uth.tmc.edu/index.htm
  14. University of Washington Digital Brain Atlas http://www9.biostr.washington.edu/cgibin/DA/PageMaster?atlas:Neuroanatomy+ffpathIndex: Splash^Page+2
  15. 3D Brain for iTunes App, http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/3d-brain/id331399332?mt=8
  16. Brain Tutor HD App, http://www.brainvoyager.com/iOS/BrainTutorHD.html

 

HHA 803: Developmental Anatomy

Course Purpose

To enable the learner to apply the advanced knowledge of developmental anatomy to biomedical research and/or clinical practice. Also, to impart knowledge on the developmental sequence of gametogenesis, embryogenesis, pregnancy adaptation, and fetal development, through parturition, normal and abnormal childhood development, puberty and senescence of the reproductive system.

Expected learning outcomes

At the end of this course, the learner should be able to:

  1. Use knowledge of molecular and genetic control in developmental processes to human embryology.
  2. Apply congenital abnormalities and their application in biomedical research and/or clinical practice.
  3. Demonstrate detailed knowledge of embryology and its application in clinical/applied situations.

Course content

Features and phases of prenatal and postnatal developmental periods. Genetic and environmental regulations of developmental growth and aging. Features regulation of mitosis, meiosis and their disorders. Gametogenesis, fertilization, early development, fertility indices. Induction cascades in gastrulation and its disorders. Feto-maternal interactions in early gestation. Control of gestation. Initiation, sustenance and disorders of implantation. Fetal membrane dysgenesis and gastrulation disorders. Teratology. Induction, regulation and disorders of morphogenesis, histogenesis, organogenesis. Mechanisms and consequences of congenital defects of various body systems. Aging of tissues and organs. Principles of experimental and comparative embryology. Assisted reproduction and disorders. Applied aspects of the development of systems: Respiratory system, Digestive System, Cardiovascular, Urogenital System, musculoskeletal, nervous & integument.

Mode of delivery

The course shall be conducted through face to face lectures, practicals, seminars, tutorials, presentations and self-directed learning.

Instructional materials

Laptops, LCD projectors, articles from journals, books, relevant internet sites.

Course assessment

Continuous assessment = 100%

Core Reading Material

  1. Bruce M. Carlson, B.M. (2014). Human Embryology and Developmental Biology. Fifth Edition ISBN: 978-1-4557-2794-0. Saunders, Elsevier Inc. China 
  2. Moore, K.L., Persaud, T.V.N. & Torchia, M.G. (2015). The developing human: clinically oriented embryology (10th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.
  3. Sadler, T.W. (2015). Langman’s Medical Embryology, 13th Ed. LWW. Wolter Kluwer Health, China.
  4. Schoenwolf, G.C., Bleyl, S.B., Brauer, P.R., Francis-West, P.H. & Philippa H. (2015). Larsen's human embryology (5th ed.). New York; Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
  5. https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/ANAT2341_Embryology_2015

 

HHA 804: Research Methods, Biostatistics and Principles of Scientific Communication

Course Purpose

To train learners on the principles and practice of effective scientific communication. To impart knowledge and skills for carrying out research in anatomical sciences. To train on appropriate biostatistics techniques in the anatomical sciences.

Expected learning outcomes

At the end of this course, the learner should be able:

  1. Demonstrate basic skills for critical evaluation of scientific communications and provide opportunities for practising these principles
  2. Demonstrate a comprehensive knowledge and advanced research skills including competency in investigative techniques and technologies
  3. Synthesize understanding of research findings.
  4. Use appropriate statistical methods in the analysis of research data.

Course content

The course is will cover use of paper-based and digital library and search for relevant information; Formulation of research proposal; study designs and their application to anatomical studies, Data capture and synthesis; Sources and organization of data; Measures of central tendency and dispersion; Normal and other distributions; standard deviation; probability testing; Test of significance; analysis of variance; correlation; regression analysis; Random, cluster and stratified sampling; Ethics of research; Writing project reports and literature reviews; The scientific paper; Presentation of scientific work; Review, discussion, and presentation of topics related to anatomy research and teaching; Principles and application of microscopic and histochemical, cytochemical study, interpretation of anatomical data. Sampling methods and study designs. Morphometry, anthropometry, biometry and stereology. Information retrieval system. Collection, collation and organization and analysis of data.

This course will also cover an introduction to effective communication of science in a variety of real-world contexts. This includes strategies for dealing with complex areas like theories, genomics and neuroscience. Projects focus on speaking and writing, being an expert witness, preparing briefings for policy-makers, writing blogs, and giving live interviews for broadcast, as well as the creation of an interactive exhibit for display in the Department.

Mode of delivery

The course shall be conducted through face to face lectures, practicals, seminars, tutorials, presentations and self-directed learning.

Instructional materials

Laptops, LCD projectors, articles from journals, books, audios

Course assessment

Continuous assessment = 100%

Core Reading Material

  1. Bowater, L., Yeoman, K. (2013). Science Communication - A Practical Guide for Scientists 1st edition. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN-13: 978-1119993124, ISBN-10: 1119993121
  2. CDC in 2012. Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health Practice, Third Edition. An Introduction to Applied Epidemiology and Biostatistics http://www.cdc.gov/ophss/csels/dsepd/ss1978/ss1978.pdf
  3. Illingworth, S., Allen, G. (2016). Effective Science Communication. A practical guide to surviving as a scientist. IOP Publishing Ltd. Online ISBN: 978-0-7503-1170-0 • Print ISBN: 978-0-7503-1171-7
  4. Medvecky, F. Leach, J. (2017). ‘The ethics of science communication’. JCOM 16 (04), E.
  5. Polit, D.F., Beck, C.T. (2017). Nursing research: generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health.
  6. Rebecca, S. (2011). The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. Broadway Publishers. ISBN: 9781400052172.
  7. Triola, M.M., Triola, M.F., Roy, J. (2014). Biostatistics for the Biological and Health Sciences Plus MyStatLab with Pearson eText - Title-Specific Access Card Package (2nd Edition) 2nd Edition. ISBN-13: 978-0134768342, ISBN-10: 0134768345
  8. Journal of science communication. https://jcom.sissa.it/
  9. Science communication. https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/science-communication/journal200892#description

Optional Courses

HHA 814: Human variability (Anthropometrics)

Course Purpose

To train learner on the principles of human variability. To impart knowledge on the evolution of humans. To impart knowledge on heredity and its contribution to human variability.

Expected learning outcomes

At the end of this course, the learner should be able:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of human variability
  2. Demonstrate a comprehensive knowledge of human evolution
  3. Demonstrate skills in identification of humans based on skeletal artefacts
  4. Synthesize theories of human evolution

Course content

Principles of human evolution from fossil evidence. Theories of human evolution. The constraints of Bipedal striding. Ethnic and geographical variations among human beings. Human morphometric skeletal, muscular neural and vascular variations. Influence of variability on disease patterns. Determinants and implication and consequences of variability.

The course covers principles of human evolution from fossil evidence; Theories of human evolution; The constraints of Bipedal striding; Ethnic and geographical variations among human beings; Human morphometric skeletal, muscular neural and vascular variations; Influence of variability on disease patterns; Determinants and implication and consequences of variability. This class will be a mixture of lecture and discussion, and you will learn to understand and evaluate scientific studies of human variation. The course includes a laboratory component that uses materials available to the National Museum in Nairobi.

Mode of delivery

The course shall be conducted through face to face lectures, practicals, seminars, tutorials, presentations and self-directed learning.

Instructional materials

Laptops, LCD projectors, articles from journals, books

Course assessment

Continuous assessment = 100%

Core Reading Material

  1. Mielke, James H., Lyle W. Konigsberg, and John H. Relethford. 2010. Human Biological
  2. Variation. Second edition. Oxford University Press.
  3. Yen H. 2011. Census seeks changes in how it measures race. Aug 8.
  4. Satel S. 2002. I am a racially-profiling doctor. New York Times Magazine May 5.
  5. Kahn J. 2007. Race in a bottle. Scientific American 297:40-45.
  6. Gravlee CC. 2009. How race becomes biology: the embodiment of social inequality. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 139:47-57. Check E. 2006. How Africa learned to love the cow. Nature 444:994-996.
  7. Halverson MS, Bolnick DA. 2008. An ancient DNA test of a founder effect in Native American ABO blood group frequencies. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 137:342-347

HHA 815: Physical anthropology and palaeontology.

Course purpose

To train learners on the principles of physical anthropology and palaeontology. To impart knowledge of physical anthropology and palaeontology.

Expected learning outcomes

At the end of this course, the student should be able:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of physical anthropology and paleontology
  2. Demonstrate knowledge in principle used in physical anthropology and paleontology

Course content

Origins and evolution of organisms up to the mammalian stage: Theories of origins and evolution of life on Earth. Use fossils, comparative anatomical features. General features and classification of primates. Characteristics of hominids and hominoids that antedate modern man. Fossil Evidence for Evolution of Man.

Growth and Anthropometric studies including gender and ethnic variations.

The course covers Origins and evolution of organisms up to the mammalian stage: Theories of origins and evolution of Life on Earth; General features and classification of primates; Characteristics of hominids and hominoids that antedate modern man; Fossil Evidence for the evolution of Man, Growth and Anthropometric studies including gender and ethnic variations.

Mode of delivery

The course shall be conducted through face to face lectures, practicals, seminars, tutorials, presentations and self-directed learning.

Instructional materials

Laptops, LCD projectors, articles from journals, books

Course assessment

Continuous assessment = 100%

Core Reading Material

  1. All published articles, theses, and books on primate biology by the department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi
  2. Daniel L. Gebo, (2014). Primate Comparative Anatomy. (1st Ed). Johns Hopkins University Press.
  3. Friderun Ankel-Simons, (2007). Primate anatomy. (3rd Ed). Academic Press.
  4. Jean-Jacques Petter, François Desbordes, (2013). Primates of the World: An Illustrated Guide. Princeton University Press,
  5. John Fleagle, (2013). Primate Adaptation and Evolution. (3rd Ed). Elsevier.
  6. Leslie Aiello; Christopher Dean, (1992). An Introduction to Human Evolutionary Anatomy. (1st Ed). Academic press,

HHA 816: Advanced thematic area/region/system of Human Anatomy

Course Purpose

To enable learners to apply the advanced knowledge of selected thematic area/system/region of anatomy to biomedical research and/or clinical practice. To impart advanced knowledge on the selected thematic area/system/region of the anatomy.

Expected learning outcomes

At the end of this course, the learner should be able to

  1. Relate the advanced knowledge of selected thematic area/system/region of anatomy in translational research
  2. Utilize the gained advanced knowledge in the selected thematic area/system/region of anatomy in discovery and innovation
  3. Demonstrate knowledge of the selected thematic area/system/region of anatomy and its application in clinical/applied situations
  4. Apply knowledge in the diagnosis, investigations and management of clinical conditions
  5. Evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of different pathways to commercialization
  6. Determine and recommend suitable stakeholders at critical time points along the commercialization pathway based on core stakeholder capabilities

Course content

The course will cover the application of conventional radiology, contrast radiography, ultrasonography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and nuclear medicine in the study of anatomy for visualization of structures, diagnosis, measurement and research.

For the advanced course in cell and tissue biology, topics which may be covered will include transcription, translation, intracellular trafficking, cell-cell signalling, membrane transport, structure and function of DNA and tissue engineering.

 

Advanced neuroanatomy may cover functional organization and information flow; neuroimaging; cellular mechanisms implicated in the development of learning and memory; current strategies being used to study both developments of memory and dementia; sexual differentiation of the brain; and neuroplasticity.

Advanced reproductive anatomy and embryology may cover molecular and genetic control of development; fertility programs including maturation of oocytes and their control, cryopreservation; embryo development; stem cells; Assisted reproductive technologies (ART); and Gene therapy. It will also cover molecular control of menstruation, hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, steroidogenesis and gonadal development. Specific disease topic will be tailored to student’s interest and may include: infertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome, endometriosis and fibroids. The course will include animal model experiments on different stages of development and analysis of congenital defects. In the laboratory, students will use embryos not suitable for assisted fertility treatment to learn molecular techniques to study RNA and protein expression.

 

Translational research is a growing and exciting new discipline in medicine that deals with the development of fundamental scientific findings into tangible clinical outcomes. Translational researchers are involved in identifying a worthwhile scientific finding that can be applied to a clinical setting. Research and development pipeline critical check-points that provide the investigator with vital tools to generate a valuable result that has merit for translation will be covered. Students will gain knowledge of the processes involved in developing a basic science finding through to clinical studies. Marketing and effective communication of scientific concepts will be covered.

Mode of delivery

The course shall be conducted through face to face lectures, practicals, seminars, tutorials, presentations and self-directed learning.

Instructional materials

Laptops, LCD projectors, articles from journals, books, laboratory animals

Course assessment

Continuous assessment = 100%

Core Reading Material

  1. https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/ANAT2341_Embryology_2015
  2. Moore, K.L., Persaud, T.V.N. & Torchia, M.G. (2015). The developing human: clinically oriented embryology (10th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.
  3. Schoenwolf, G.C., Bleyl, S.B., Brauer, P.R., Francis-West, P.H. & Philippa H. (2015). Larsen's human embryology (5th ed.). New York; Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
  4. Langman’s Medical Embryology, 13th Ed. LWW. Previous editions are suitable, but course materials will reference pagination or chapters in the 13th Edition.
  5. Clinical embryology: A practical guide. Nagy ZP, Varghese AC, Agarwal A. 2013. Springer
  6. The ontogenetic basis of human anatomy. A biodynamic approach to development from conception to birth. Blechschmidt E. 2004. North Atlantic books, Berkeley, California.
  7. Human embryology and developmental biology. Carlson B. 2014. 5th edition. Elsevier Saunders.
  8. Molecular Biology: Principles and Practice, 2nd edition, by Cox et al
  9. Molecular Biology: Principles of Genome Function (Hardcover) by Nancy Craig
  10. Molecular Diagnostics: Fundamentals, Methods and Clinical Applications (Paperback) by Lela Buckingham
  11. Introduction to Molecular Biology, Genomics and Proteomics for Biomedical Engineers (Hardcover) by Robert B. Northrop 
  12. Ishizaki Y, Mizuno T, Hara K, Kawasaki S. Advanced segmental atrophy of the liver with marked elastosis. Surgery. 2015 Apr;157(4):826-7
  13. Beaufrère AM, Neveux N, Patureau Mirand P, Buffière C, Marceau G, Sapin V, Cynober L, Meydinal-Denis D. Long-term intermittent glutamine supplementation repairs intestinal damage (structure and functional mass) with advanced age: assessment with plasma citrulline in a rodent model. J Nutr Health Aging. 2014 Nov;18(9):814-9.
  14. Fukuda M, Mizutani T, Mochizuki W, Matsumoto T, Nozaki K, Sakamaki Y, Ichinose S, Okada Y, Tanaka T, Watanabe M, Nakamura T. Small intestinal stem cell identity is maintained with functional Paneth cells in heterotopically grafted epithelium onto the colon. Genes Dev. 2014 Aug 15;28(16):1752-7.

 

HHA 830. Thesis 2760 hours

The student shall conduct research in the selected thematic area of Human Anatomy as approved by the thematic unit and faculty. The thesis shall be submitted three months before the anticipated date of defense.

 

ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS

Minimum Admission Requirements

1.The common regulations for Doctor of Philosophy of the University of Nairobi shall apply.

2 The applicants eligible for admission into the program shall fulfil all the following conditions:

Holder of a Master of Medicine degree or

Holders of Master of Dental Surgery degree or

Holders of Master of Science in Anatomy or

  1. Holders of equivalent degrees from Universities recognized by the University of Nairobi Senate.
  2. Provide a certificate of proficiency in the use of the English language or evidence of having studied using the language.
  3. Pass an entry examination.

1.1.3 The curriculum is open for students had previously completed the intercalated Bachelor of Science in Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi and are enrolled in Master of Medicine degree programs in surgical disciplines, to undertake the intercalated MMed/PhD Anatomy program after completion of the second year of their ongoing MMed program.

  1. Credit Transfer and Exemptions

1.2.1 A candidate may on the recommendation of the school Board and approval by Senate be allowed to transfer credits or seek exemption for up to one-third of the taught courses if the candidate had attained a similar programme in another institution recognized by the University of Nairobi.

1.2.2 Applicants seeking course transfer of credits or exemptions shall apply through the Chairman, Department of Human Anatomy and the Dean of the School of Medicine to the Director of the University of Nairobi Graduate School justifying the request and indicating course units and attach certificates, syllabus, transcripts or other relevant documents required by the Graduate school to support the application shall be considered only after the applicant has paid requisite fees.

1.2.3 Grades for the transferred courses shall be entered in the student’s transcript while the exempted courses shall be entered as “exempt”

1.2.4 Applicants will only be allowed to transfer units from accredited institutions and programmes.

 

  1. COURSE REQUIREMENTS
  2. Student Obligations

The student will be required to attend all scheduled teaching sessions, journal clubs and practical classes for undergraduate and master students.

  1. Lecturer and Tutor Obligations
  1. The lecturer shall facilitate learning and apply the most suitable methods for the course.
  2. The lecturer shall develop teaching and laboratory schedules and coordinate learning and examination of students in the stipulated areas of study.

 

  1. STUDENT ASSESSMENT POLICY/CRITERIA
  2. Mode of Assessment

Student assessment shall be both formative and summative comprising of:

  1. Continuous Assessment Tests
  2. Scheduled presentations
  3. End of term examinations
  4. End of year examinations
  5. Thesis examination
  1. Student Supervision

Students will be supervised by at least two provided university supervisors. They will provide quarterly supervised reports.

Note:

  1. The common regulations for Doctor of Philosophy of the University of Nairobi shall apply.
  2. The applicants eligible for admission into the program shall fulfil all the following conditions:
    1. Holder of a Master of Medicine degree or
    2. Holders of Master of Dental Surgery degree or 
    3. Holders of Master of Science in Anatomy or
    4. Holders of equivalent degrees from Universities recognized by the University of Nairobi Senate.
    5. Provide a certificate of proficiency in the use of the English language or evidence of having studied using the language.
    6. Pass an entry examination.
    7. This curriculum is also available for individuals who wish to pursue intercalated PhD. Anatomy if they have completed their first year of Mmed in A surgical Discipline in addition to having successfully completed an MSc Anatomy or B.Sc Anatomy. 

 

 

 

1. Teaching Human Anatomy.

2. Anatomical research.

 

   YEAR 1   YEAR 2   YEAR 3    TOTALS 
TUITION              396,000.00              396,000.00              396,000.00                1,188,000.00
ICT SERVICES - (PER YEAR)                   7,000.00                   7,000.00                   7,000.00                      21,000.00
THESIS EXAMINATION                                -                                   -                   50,000.00                      50,000.00
REGISTRATION (PER SEMESTER@2250)                   4,500.00                   4,500.00                   4,500.00                      13,500.00
ID CARD (PER YEAR)                   1,000.00                   1,000.00                   1,000.00                        3,000.00
CAUTION - (ONCE)                   5,000.00                                -                                   -                           5,000.00
MEDICAL FEE (PER YEAR)                   6,500.00                   6,500.00                   6,500.00                      19,500.00
ACTIVITY-(PER YEAR)                   2,000.00                   2,000.00                   2,000.00                        6,000.00
LIBRARY (PER YEAR)                   5,000.00                   5,000.00                   5,000.00                      15,000.00
STUDENT Organization(PER YEAR)                   1,000.00                   1,000.00                   1,000.00                        3,000.00
Grand totals   428,000.00   423,000.00   473,000.00    1,324,000.00

NOTE: The above fees is applicable to both local and international students.